Hongcun, located at the southwest foot of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province, is 11 kilometers away from the county seat of Yixian County.
The mountains are green and the water is the mountains. During the Shaoxing period of the Southern Song Dynasty, people in Guhong Village irrigated the fields for fire prevention, and they pioneered bionics with their own ingenuity, and built an artificial water system called "one of the best in China". water article. The nine-curved and ten-curved water canal is the "beef intestine", the "moon marsh" excavated next to the spring is the "beef stomach", the "South Lake" is the "beef stomach", and the dwellings on both sides of the "beef intestine" are the "cow body". Two ancient trees, ginkgo and poplar are "horns". The harmonious coexistence of the lakes and mountains and the stacked courtyards, the natural landscape and the humanistic connotation complement each other, which distinguishes Hongcun from other residential buildings and has become a miracle of the world's historical and cultural heritage.
There are more than 140 Ming and Qing dwellings in the village, and the "Three Sculptures" of Chengzhi Hall are exquisite and magnificent. There are also famous scenic spots: Nanhu Scenery, Nanhu Academy, Moonshine Spring Dawn, Niuchang Shuizhen, Shuangxi Yingbi, Tingqian Tree, Leigang Sunset, Shuren Hall, Ming Dynasty ancestral hall Lexu Hall, etc. Around the village, there are well-known Zhishan Woodcarving Building, Qishu Lake, Tachuan Autumn, Mukeng Bamboo Sea, Wancun Ming Temple "Aijingtang" and other landscapes.
Hongcun is the most representative among the many unique Hui style dwelling villages in southern Anhui. From the overall appearance, Hongcun is a peculiar cow-shaped ancient village in the Peach Blossom Garden of Ancient Yi. It has both mountains and forests, and a water town style. It is known as "the village in Chinese painting". All households in the village are connected by water channels, gurgling springs gurgling from each household, and the courtyards are stacked on top of each other with the scenery of lakes and mountains. During the leisurely walk, the leisurely feeling is so strong that it makes people fascinated.
The village has more than 140 well-preserved Ming and Qing dwellings. Famous attractions include: Nanhu Scenery, Nanhu Academy, Spring Dawn in Moon Marsh, Niuchang Shuizhen, Shuangxi Yingbi, Big Tree in front of Pavilion, Leigang Sunset, Shuren Hall, Ming Dynasty Ancestral Hall, Lexu Hall, etc.
Nanhu is located at the southern head of Hongcun. It was built in the Ming Dynasty, Wanli Dingwei (1607). The Hongcun village went from Yongle to Wanli. In the late Ding year of the Wanli year, a hundred acres of fertile land in the south of the village was dug several feet deep, and the surrounding area was built with stones on the banks, imitating the style of the West Lake Pinghu Qiuyue, and built the South Lake. The lake is in the shape of a big bow, and the lake embankment is divided into upper and lower layers. The upper layer is 4 meters wide. The old trees are towering and green, the trunk is coiled with vines, birds are singing, and there are weeping willows with graceful branches and leaves, like a girl who dresses up in a mirror. Hair spilled into the lake water. The green lotus on the lake is swaying, the ducks are playing in the water, and there is another scene. The reflection of the whole lake surface is floating, the water and sky are the same color, the far peak is close to the house, and it falls into the lake. In addition, the interaction between the shade of the tree and the depth of the water and the sunlight, the light and shade are coordinated, and the movement and stillness are suitable, which is deep, elegant, fresh and bright. South Lake has been overhauled three times in history. In 1986, the middle embankment was rebuilt, and the "painted bridge" was built to row boats from east to west, which is full of fun.
In the autumn of the Jiaqing Year of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty, Wu Xilin, a famous scholar in Qiantang (now Hangzhou) of Zhejiang Province, visited Nanhu, and wrote an article: "The prosperity of Hongcun's Nanhu tour is comparable to that of Zhejiang's West Lake."
Many poets and painters in ancient and modern times wrote many poems and drawings after visiting Nanhu.
"The boundless drizzle wets the spring mud, and I hear the birds chirping in the fog; the willows frown and peach with a smile, while chanting across the west of the painting bridge." With the great ode of the poem, it adds to the atmosphere of the blending of the scenery and scenes of the South Lake.
In Yuemarsh, the common people call it Yuetang, which is the so-called "beef belly". The Moon Marsh was built in the Yongle period of Ming Dynasty (1403-1424 AD). At that time, Wang Siqi came out of Hongcun. He found that there was a natural spring in the village. Ning's Feng Shui Mr. He Da Da, and the seniors in the clan, "read the mountains and rivers, carefully examine the context", formulate the blueprint for the expansion of the foundation site of Hongcun and the overall planning of the village's cow-shaped water system, and draw the Xixi River around the village house. Its cattle intestine water canal has nine curves and ten bends, and the water is introduced into the natural well spring in the center of the village to build a moon marsh pond to store the inner yang water for fire prevention and drinking. The descendants of Wang Shengping and others invested more than 10,000 yuan. Continue to dig the canal and excavate into a half-moon-shaped pond, completing the "moon marsh" that was not completed by the predecessors. This is the moon pond. The moon pond is green all the year round, and the pond surface is as level as a mirror. Arranged on four sides, the blue sky and white clouds fell into the water, the elderly were chatting, the women were washing the yarn and the handkerchief, and the urchins were joking.
Built in the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty (1403-1423 AD), the Water Canal has a history of more than 500 years, with a total length of more than 1,200 meters. The ancestors of Hongcun people are very good at using natural streams to make a fuss. They built stone dams on the Shangshou River in Hongcun, and built artificial canals several meters wide with stones. They took advantage of the terrain drop to introduce a clear water. in the village. The water canal has nine bends and ten bends, passing through the house, passing through the menstrual swamp, and finally pouring into the Nanhu Lake, out of the Nanhu Lake, irrigating the farmland, watering the fruit trees, and then flowing into the Suixi River again, moisturizing the whole village and refreshing, giving the quiet mountain village a sense of movement, creating a kind of "" Huanji is not far from Fangxi and the road is far, and there is a clear spring in front of every house”.
This artificial water system enriches the village landscape. It is harmonious, changeable, and full of aura. It has six major functions. The first is fire prevention; the second is to adjust the microclimate, improve the temperature and humidity, purify the air and beautify the environment; the third is drinking; the fourth is washing; the fifth is irrigation; and the sixth is power generation.
There are countless small canals and stepping stones along the way. It is very convenient for people to wash clothes and water flowers and gardens. It is the "tap water" of ancient villages. In those days, villagers drank and washed in "cow intestines". It was a rule that before 8:00 every morning, the water in the "beef intestines" is drinking water, and after 8:00, the villagers can only wash here. What is even more amazing is that the water level of the beef intestines, no matter it is sunny or rainy, always remains at a certain height, that is, the water level is always lower than a little below the bridge, no more or less, which is very strange.
Jing de tang
The whole building of Jingde Hall has simple decoration and square pillars. It is a representative work of Hongcun's residential buildings in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. You can understand the living conditions of ordinary merchants and the pattern of buildings in Huizhou in Ming and Qing dynasties. It is located at the turn of the downstream of Niuchangshuizhen in Hongcun Village. The halls are arranged in the back, with patios in the front and back halls, with good lighting performance. There are wing rooms on both sides, the front yard on the south, the kitchen on the north, there is a small patio in the kitchen, and there is a small courtyard on the east side facing east. Side hall and large garden.
The pronunciation of "Jing" in "Jingdetang" is similar to the accumulated "accumulation", which reflects the owner's hope that his descendants can accumulate virtue and do good deeds. The owner likes to plant bonsai with flowers and plants, leaving plenty of space in front of the main house, and placing a small wooden house on the left side of the yard, which is equivalent to a greenhouse. In winter, the bonsai is placed in the room.
Huizhou people attach great importance to the construction of gate towers. There is a saying that "a thousand gold gate towers and four or two houses". The ancients would rather spend a thousand taels of gold to build gate towers, and only spend four taels to build houses. It sounds a bit exaggerated, but it can reflect the door. Building is a symbol of status.
The patterns carved on the gate of Jingde Hall have many symbolic meanings.
At the corner of the building, there is a squid with a dragon head and a fish tail, expressing his hope that his descendants can come out on top. Below the fish is the picture of four joys of plum, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum. When a magpie climbs the plum map, it means to be happy. East Deer, West Horse, "Deer" is a homonym of "Lu" for good fortune, longevity and wealth. It is hoped that future generations will be able to live well, and "horse" reflects the meaning of prosperity in career. The auspicious water animals on the bottom left and right corners of the gatehouse are in the shape of rolling waves. Two crucian carp jumped out of the water with difficulty.
There are six lotus gates on the east and west sides of the main hall in the house, and there are five bats carved on the middle plate, which is called "five bats for longevity, good fortune and good fortune". The east and west wing rooms are the bedrooms where the master rests. The windows of the wing rooms are carved with patterns of copper coins on the upper floors, and the swastika pattern is carved on the rails under the windows, which means more wealth and more blessings.
Jingde Hall uses a patio for ventilation and lighting. There is a piece of wood on the left and right sides under the patio. In the scorching summer, the direct sunlight is very hot in the house. strong sunlight. There is a couplet in front of the hall: "I am determined not to follow the fashion, and pay attention to the difficulty of learning from the ancients."
The style and layout of the houses in the Ming Dynasty are simple. The pillars are square, while those in the Qing Dynasty are columns. Generally, the houses are two stories. the beam. The houses in the Ming Dynasty were simply decorated, and the Huizhou merchants in the Qing Dynasty reached their heyday and paid special attention to carved beams and painted buildings. Huizhou architecture hides the entrance of the stairs and the front of the stairs behind the door, which plays an aesthetic role. The stairwell serves as a storage room, making full use of the space. The steps of the stairs generally have 16 steps. Merchants focus on gathering wealth and design according to the five elements, gold, wood, water, fire and soil. The first step is gold, and the last step is also gold. Gold touches gold, which means wealth and luck.
Jing xiu tang
It is a typical Qing Dynasty dwelling in Hongcun. It is located at the west end of the north side of the Moon Marsh. It was built in the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty and has a history of 180 years.
It covers an area of 286 square meters and has a construction area of 452 square meters. The base of the house is nearly 1 meter higher than the "moon marsh". The whole house faces south, and in front of the main hall is a courtyard. Different from other dwellings, there is a 10-square-meter open space outside the courtyard gate, commonly known as the hall.
Chengzhitang is located in the middle section of Shangshuizhen in Hongcun. It was built in the fifth year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty (AD 1855). It was the residence of Wang Dinggui, a big salt merchant in the late Qing Dynasty. The whole building is a wooden structure with magnificent interior decoration of bricks, stones and wood carvings. It covers an area of about 2,100 square meters and has a construction area of more than 3,000 square meters. It is a well-preserved large-scale residential building. The whole house has 9 patios, 60 large and small rooms, 136 wooden pillars, and 60 large and small doors and windows. The whole house is divided into inner courtyard, outer courtyard, front hall, back hall, east wing, west wing, study hall, fish pond hall, kitchen, stables, etc. There are also "Paishan Pavilion" for playing mahjong tiles, and "Tunyun Xuan" for smoking opium. There are also bodyguard rooms, male and maid rooms. There are ponds and wells in the house, and the water cannot be used in the house.
Hall of Trees
The Shuren Hall was built in the first year of Tongzhi (1862 AD) by Wang Xingju, a ceremonial doctor who was granted by the Qing Dynasty. Shurentang, also known as the Folk Art Collection, is the private collection of the owner Wang Sheng's 95th-generation grandson Wang Senqiang. In order to promote the history and culture of Huizhou, the owner has collected old workshop machinery in the Ming and Qing folk periods from folk and museums for many years. Stone-made utensils, Huizhou prints, folk products, Huizhou business letter tools, Hongcun genealogy, etc., reproduce some aspects of Huizhou's social life at that time.
The whole house of Shurentang is hexagonal, which means Liuhe Dashun. The main hall and the side hall are backed by the water canal, sitting north and facing south. The ceiling is painted, and the gold is flying. In the east of the hall, a small pond was built using limited open space, and the running water was long. The outer door is a built-in hanging railing in the eight-character gatehouse.
The water bucket uses the potential energy of water to convert the kinetic energy of the waterwheel into mechanical energy to drive Gonggu, grinding noodles and pounding rice. First remove the husk of the rice, called Gonggu, then put the rice into the rice pounding machine to grind it, and finally grind the noodles. The whole process is carried out at the same time.
The upstairs of Shurentang houses the road map of Hongcun people doing business - the remains of Huizhou merchants, a painting reflecting the busy scenery of the old commercial bridge and wharf, a letter from Yixian people doing insurance in Beijing in 1919, the owner of Chengzhitang The portrait, life, family praise and obituary of the giant merchant Wang Dinggui, bank notes and letters of the year, suitcases, shoe racks, rakes, hoes, shovels and other agricultural tools used in business before.
Taoyuan Residence was built in the tenth year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty (1860). It was named after the landlord once planted a rare variety of peach trees in the courtyard.
Although Taoyuan Residence is not large in scale, the brick carvings on the gatehouse and the interior wood carvings can be regarded as fine products.
The bricks on the gatehouse are finely carved and have many layers. The images of animals such as lions and white elephants are vivid. What is particularly unique is that the upper part of the gatehouse is built with water-milled bricks with an arc-shaped door, similar to the wax gourd beam in the front of the interior hall, and the middle of the door is inlaid. A large arc-shaped brick carving, which is rare in general ancient dwellings.
Indoor woodcarving has various patterns, changing techniques, rich content and profound meaning. These features are mainly reflected in the doors and windows of the halls and the carved doors of the study hall.
The main patterns of the doors and windows of the hall are Baoding and Treasure Vase. The openings of the windows are hanging type. There are two "boys" guarding the windows above the windows on both sides. The apartment is "Four Joys and Sixths", the upper part of the door is "vine knot flowers", the characters on the "huaxin board" on each door are historical allusions, and the "huaxin board" in the east room door is "Xizhi" "Playing with geese", other allusions need to be verified. In addition, the grapes on the two sides and the double sparrows are all treasures.
The four carved doors in the study can be said to be the most exquisite carved doors in the village.
The upper half of the four doors are carved from top to bottom for "Bat Bongshou", "Eight Horses" and "Wonderland on Earth" (or "Xanadu"), and the large carvings are "Squirrel Grape". There are four historical allusions engraved on it: "Yue Fei's tattoo", "Wang Xiang seeking carp" (also known as "Lying on ice for fish"), "Jizi hanging sword" and "Kong Rong giving pear", these four allusions therefore express "loyalty". , filial piety, festival, righteousness" four meanings.
At the entrance of Hongcun Village, at a glance, you can see two 500-year-old ancient trees. The two big trees, one is called maple poplar, which is called red poplar locally; the other is called ginkgo tree, which is called ginkgo tree locally. The red poplar tree on the north side is 19 meters high and 6 meters in circumference. It takes 4 or 5 people to hug. The canopy is shaped like a giant umbrella, covering several acres of land at the entrance of the village in the shade of greenery. The ginkgo tree on the south side is 20 meters high,
Shaped like a sharp sword, it pierces the sky. Because ginkgo is a rare tree species in the world, and this ginkgo is 500 years old, everyone calls this ginkgo the "treasure" at the entrance of the village. These two big trees are the "horns" of this ox-shaped village and the "feng shui tree" of Hongcun, and they are also a symbol of auspiciousness. According to the past customs here, when the people in the village hold wedding events, the bride's sedan chair will make a big circle around the poplar tree, which indicates that the newlyweds will be in harmony for a hundred years, and the red blessings will be in the sky; Make a big circle around the white fruit tree, implying that the descendants are full of children and grandchildren, high happiness and longevity.